||The Ranong mangrove ecosystem on the Andaman Sea coastline of southern Thai-land mainly consists of primary forest and some secondary vegetation. Until re-cently, mangrove forests have been mainly recognized by local people for their di-rect use values. This misconception coupled with the consideration of mangrove resources as being “open access” easily leads to their exploitation. The national and local government unit regulations and enforcement are crucial to ensure the protection of mangroves. In addition, the success of the mangrove forest rehabilita-tion and conservation depends on the participation of local people. Thus, the local people need to be better informed about the mangrove resources and ecosystem and ecological and economic benefits.